Almonds are generally classified as tree nuts, but are more closely related to the Rosaceae family of plants which include apples, strawberries and peaches. Allergic reactions to almonds are less common than other tree nuts.
Almonds contain 6 allergenic proteins, Pru d 3 is a lipid transfer protein (LTP). This group of proteins commonly cause allergic symptoms.
Pru d 4 is a profilin protein, this is a panallergen which can cause problems across many different foods.
Most tree nut allergies are caused by seed storage proteins, almonds only have 1 type of seed storage protein, Pru d 6 is an 11S seed storage protein which can cause people to be allergic to whole groups of tree nuts, seeds and legumes.
Almond allergy is often linked to LTP Syndrome
, where similarly shaped proteins in other plants resemble those in almonds and elicit an allergic reaction.
There may be cross reactivity with other plants in the Rosaceae family. This includes apples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, apricots, pears and raspberries.
Common foods involved in LTP allergy include kiwi, strawberries, sunflower seeds, walnut, apple, mulberry, banana, pea, apricot, cherry, plum, almond, peach pomegranate, raspberry, tomato, grape, celery, peanut, asparagus, cabbage, broccoli, chestnut, lemon, tangerine, orange, hazelnut, lettuce, lentils, lupin, green bean, pear, mustard, wheat and maize.
Profilin proteins are also found in pineapple, celery, peanut, chilli, watermelon, orange, hazelnut, carrot, strawberry, soya, barley, walnut, lychee, lupin, apple, banana, dates, cherry, kiwi, peach, pear, mustard, tomato, aubergine and wheat.
11S seed storage proteins are also found in kiwi, cashew, pecan, macadamia, peanut, brazil nut, pumpkin, soya beans, walnut, pistachio, sesame and mustard.
Allergen Encyclopedia - Almond
Science Direct - Legumins
Allergy information for: Almond (Prunus dulcis)
Anaphylaxis Campaign - Almond Allergy
What Are the Symptoms of a Nut Allergy?
Allergy UK - Quick Guide to Tree Nut Allergy
FARE - Tree Nut Allergy
Articles and Journals
The influence of cultural attitudes to nut exposure on reported nut allergy: A pilot cross sectional study, 2020
Analysis of Oral Food Challenge Outcomes in IgE-Mediated Food Allergies to Almond in a Large Cohort, 2019
Review of 400 consecutive oral food challenges to almond, 2019
Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Pru du 8, the First Member of a New Family of Food Allergens, 2019
Almond Allergy: An Overview on Prevalence, Thresholds, Regulations and Allergen Detection, 2018
Cloning and characterization of profilin (Pru du 4), a cross-reactive almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen, 2006
A voluntary registry for peanut and tree nut allergy: characteristics of the first 5149 registrants, 2001
Let me know if you found any of these interesting or useful.
If you spot an article or research that you think is interesting you can message me or tag me on Facebook or Twitter - links at the bottom of the page.