5 key food allergens have been identified in barley, Hor v 12, Hor v 15, 16, 17 and Hor v 20.
Additionally Hor v 5 is an allergen associated with airway allergies, so is important for those sensitised to barley pollen.
Hor v 12 is a profilin protein, these are panallergens which have been found to cause allergies in many foods.
Hor v 20 is a gamma hordein and is the allergen most commonly linked to cross reactivity with other grains.
As barley contains a gamma hordein it is commonly linked to exercise induced anaphylaxis
, more specifically to wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis. This is because the gamma hordein is similar in structure to omega-5 gliadin's found in wheat.
Coeliac disease is not an allergic condition, but is triggered by gluten found in wheat and there are similarly shaped proteins in barley to which sensitive individuals may react.
Profilin proteins are also found in pineapple, celery, peanut, chilli, watermelon, orange, hazelnut, carrot, strawberry, soya, barley, walnut, lychee, lupin, apple, banana, dates, cherry, kiwi, peach, pear, mustard, tomato, aubergine and wheat.
Barley is in the Poales order of foods, so there may be some cross reactivity with other foods in the group such as wheat, rye and maize.
Science Direct - Hordein
Allergen Encyclopedia - Barley
Allergy information for: Barley (Hordeum vulgare )
ACAAI - Wheat & Gluten Allergy
Coeliac UK - What is barley malt extract?
Coeliac UK - About Gluten and Grains
Articles and Journals
Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Barley Allergy in Korean Children: a Single Hospital Based Retrospective Study, 2020
Rye gamma-70 and gamma-35 secalins and barley gamma-3 hordein cross-react with omega-5 gliadin, a major allergen in wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, 2001
Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy, 2017
Beer-induced anaphylaxis: identification of allergens, 1999
Pollen allergen homologues in barley and other crop species, 1995
A barley flour inhibitor of insect alpha-amylase is a major allergen associated with baker's asthma disease, 1989
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