There are 13 allergens associated with allergy to kiwi, these are called Act d 1, Act d 2 to Act d 13.
Act d 1 is a cysteine protease protein.
Act d 8 is a Bet v 1 like protein associated with Pollen-Food Syndrome, so those allergic to this protein may suffer Oral Allergy Syndrome symptoms to a group of related foods.
Act d 9 is a profilin protein, these are panallergens found in many fruits and vegetables.
Act d 10 is a lipid transfer protein (LTP), these are also panallergens found in many foods, there is a big overlap with pollen foods and LTP foods, but allergy to LTP is associated with more severe allergic reactions.
Act d 11 is a kiwi protein which is a major latex protein/ripening-related protein and is therefore linked to latex allergy.
Act d 13 is a 2S seed storage albumin
, these are usually found in nuts, seeds and legumes.
Kiwi allergy is often seen in conjunction with allergies to other foods, either presenting as Pollen-Food Allergy Syndrome, Latex Food Syndrome or LTP Syndrome.
You may have Pollen-Food Allergy Syndrome
if you suffer from kiwi allergy with oral allergy symptoms to 3 or more of the foods mentioned in cross reactivity section.
Kiwi allergy has been linked to Latex Food Syndrome
, which is caused by the body confusing the proteins it encounters in food to that of latex proteins to which it is already sensitised.
Allergy to kiwi is also associated with LTP Syndrome.
Contact with the skin of the kiwi is associated with urticaria (hives), allergic contact dermatitis and asthma.
Some of the latex linked allergies are in foods which contain high levels of chitinase, like chestnuts, banana, avocados, papaya, pomegranate, corn (maize) and tomatoes.
If sensitised to birch tree pollen you may have Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome and may also react to apple, pear, peach, plum, nectarine, apricots, cherries, tomato, celery, carrot, potato, parsnip, pepper, dill, cumin, peas, coriander, Fennel, Hazelnut, Walnut, Almonds, peanuts, lentils and beans
Other foods containing cysteine protease are papaya, potatoes and melons.
Profilin proteins are also found in pineapple, celery, peanut, chilli, watermelon, orange, hazelnut, carrot, strawberry, soya, barley, walnut, lychee, lupin, apple, banana, dates, cherry, almond, peach, pear, mustard, tomato, aubergine and wheat.
Other food containing 2S albumin seed storage proteins are cashews, peanuts, almonds, mustard seed, rapeseed, turnip, chickpeas, hazelnuts, pistachio, buckwheat, soya beans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, peanuts, castor beans and sesame seeds.
Allergen Encyclopedia - Kiwi
DermNet NZ - Kiwi
Kiwi Allergy - The Facts - Anaphylaxis Campaign
Allergic Living - Serious Fruit Allergy
Food.gov - Kiwi Fruit Allergy
Science Direct - Latex Allergy
Allergy information for: Kiwi fruit; chinese gooseberry (Actinidia deliciosa (green kiwifruit)
Articles and Journals
High frequency of IgE sensitization towards kiwi seed storage proteins among peanut allergic individuals also reporting allergy to kiwi, 2017
Kiwifruit Allergy in Children: Characterization of Main Allergens and Patterns of Recognition, 2015
Molecular characterization of allergens in raw and processed kiwifruit, 2015
In patients with LTP syndrome food-specific IgE show a predictable hierarchical order, 2014
Kiwifruit Act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen, 2011
Immunoglobulin E recognition patterns to purified Kiwifruit (Actinidinia deliciosa) allergens in patients sensitized to Kiwi with different clinical symptoms, 2008
Allergy to kiwi: A double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study in patients from a birch-free area, 2004
Class I chitinases as potential panallergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome, 1999
Latex allergy: clinical features and cross-reactivity with fruits, 1994
Kiwi fruit allergy: A new birch pollen–associated food allergy, 1994
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