Key Allergens

There are 13 allergens associated with allergy to kiwi, these are called Act d 1, Act d 2 to Act d 13.

Act d 1 is a cysteine protease protein.

Act d 8 is a Bet v 1 like protein associated with Pollen-Food Syndrome, so those allergic to this protein may suffer Oral Allergy Syndrome symptoms to a group of related foods.

Act d 9 is a profilin protein, these are panallergens found in many fruits and vegetables.

Act d 10 is a lipid transfer protein (LTP), these are also panallergens found in many foods, there is a big overlap with pollen foods and LTP foods, but allergy to LTP is associated with more severe allergic reactions.

Act d 11 is a kiwi protein which is a major latex protein/ripening-related protein and is therefore linked to latex allergy.

Act d 12 is a 11S seed storage protein and Act d 13 is a 2S seed storage albumin, these are proteins usually found in nuts, seeds and legumes.

Associated Syndromes

Kiwi allergy is often seen in conjunction with allergies to other foods, either presenting as Pollen-Food Allergy Syndrome, Latex Food Syndrome or LTP Syndrome.

You may have Pollen-Food Allergy Syndrome if you suffer from kiwi allergy with oral allergy symptoms to 3 or more of the foods mentioned in cross reactivity section.

Allergy to kiwi is sometimes linked to Celery-Mugwort-Spice Syndrome as the sensitising allergen is a profilin protein called Art v 4, these proteins are also sometimes also called Bet v 2 proteins.

Kiwi allergy has been linked to Latex Food Syndrome, which is caused by the body confusing the proteins it encounters in food to that of latex proteins to which it is already sensitised.

Allergy to kiwi is also associated with LTP Syndrome.

Contact with the skin of the kiwi is associated with urticaria (hives), allergic contact dermatitis and asthma.

Cross Reactivity

Some of the latex linked allergies are in foods which contain high levels of chitinase, like chestnuts, banana, avocados, papaya, pomegranate, corn (maize) and tomatoes.

If sensitised to birch tree pollen you may have Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome and may also react to apple, pear, peach, plum, nectarine, apricots, cherries, tomato, celery, carrot, potato, parsnip, pepper, dill, cumin, peas, coriander, Fennel, Hazelnut, Walnut, Almonds, peanuts, lentils and beans

Other foods containing cysteine protease are papaya, potatoes and melons.

Profilin proteins are also found in pineapple, celery, peanut, chilli, watermelon, orange, hazelnut, carrot, strawberry, soya, barley, walnut, lychee, lupin, apple, banana, dates, cherry, almond, peach, pear, mustard, tomato, aubergine and wheat.

Other food containing 2S albumin seed storage proteins are cashews, peanuts, almonds, mustard seed, rapeseed, turnip, chickpeas, hazelnuts, pistachio, buckwheat, soya beans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, peanuts, castor beans and sesame seeds.

Food containing 11S seed storage proteins include almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, mustard seeds, peanuts, pecan, pistachio, pumpkin seeds, soya beans and walnuts. There is a lot of cross over with foods containing 2S seed storage proteins.



Allergen Encyclopedia - Kiwi

DermNet NZ - Kiwi

Kiwi Allergy - The Facts - Anaphylaxis Campaign

Allergic Living - Serious Fruit Allergy - Kiwi Fruit Allergy

Science Direct - Latex Allergy

Allergy information for: Kiwi fruit; chinese gooseberry (Actinidia deliciosa (green kiwifruit)

Articles and Journals

Exercise induced anaphylaxis in kiwi allergic patient: case report, 2021

High frequency of IgE sensitization towards kiwi seed storage proteins among peanut allergic individuals also reporting allergy to kiwi, 2017

Kiwifruit Allergy in Children: Characterization of Main Allergens and Patterns of Recognition, 2015

Molecular characterization of allergens in raw and processed kiwifruit, 2015

In patients with LTP syndrome food-specific IgE show a predictable hierarchical order, 2014

Kiwifruit Act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen, 2011

Immunoglobulin E recognition patterns to purified Kiwifruit (Actinidinia deliciosa) allergens in patients sensitized to Kiwi with different clinical symptoms, 2008

Allergy to kiwi: A double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study in patients from a birch-free area, 2004

Class I chitinases as potential panallergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome, 1999

Latex allergy: clinical features and cross-reactivity with fruits, 1994

Kiwi fruit allergy: A new birch pollen–associated food allergy, 1994

Let me know if you found any of these interesting or useful. If you spot an article or research that you think is interesting you can message me or tag me on Facebook or Twitter - links at the bottom of the page.

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