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Key Allergens

There are two types of lupins identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as having identified allergens.

White lupin is commonly grown in Mediterranean countries and is a legume which can be ground into a flour and used in baked products.

The key allergen in white lupin is Lup a 5 which is a plant profilin protein. These are panallergens which can cause allergic reactions across groups of foods.

The other lupin identified by WHO is narrow leaved lupin, more widely distributed across Europe, Asia, North America, Africa and Australia.

This plant is different in that it contains Lup an 1, a 7S seed storage protein, also known as vicilin which is a protein more commonly found in nuts and seeds.

Lup an 3 is a lipid transfer protein (LTP). Again, these are panallergens with the potential to cause allergies across different groups of foods.

Associated Syndromes

You may be suffering from LTP Syndrome if you have reactions to various fruits, vegetables and nuts and your reactions continue to be severe after you have discarded the peel and have cooked the food.

Allergy to lupin is sometimes linked to Celery-Mugwort-Spice Syndrome as the sensitising allergen is a profilin protein called Art v 4, these proteins are also sometimes also called Bet v 2 proteins.

There is also a link between lupin and Latex Food Syndrome. The plant involved in latex allergy Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber tree plant, has an allergen called Hev b 8 which is a profilin protein. Those very sensitised to latex may have a contact allergic reaction from other foods or plants containing profilin proteins, there is less evidence of this than sensitisation to other latex linked proteins like hevein and chitinases.

Cross Reactivity

Common foods involved in LTP allergy include kiwi, strawberries, sunflower seeds, walnut, apple, mulberry, banana, pea, apricot, cherry, plum, almond, peach pomegranate, raspberry, tomato, grape, celery, peanut, asparagus, cabbage, broccoli, chestnut, lemon, tangerine, orange, hazelnut, lettuce, lentils, lupin, green bean, pear, mustard, wheat and maize.

Other foods containing 7S seed storage proteins are cashew, pecan, hazelnuts, buckwheat, soyabean, walnut, macadamia nut, lentils, peas, sesame and mung bean.

Other foods containing profilin allergens are celery, peanut, soyabeans, lychee, walnut, almonds, mustard, hazelnut, kiwi, pineapple, chilli, melon, orange, strawberry, apple, banana, aubergine (eggplant), peach, pear, tomato, dates, cherry, carrot, barley and wheat. Allergic reactions to some of these foods may be considered a marker of profilin hypersensitivity.



Science Direct - Lupin

Allergen Encyclopedia - Lupin

Anaphylaxis Campaign - Lupin

Allergy information for: Lupin or Lupine (Lupinus Albus)

Foods Matter - Legume Allergies

Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTP Syndrome)

AAAAI - Lupin Allergy

Articles and Journals

Lipid Transfer Protein allergy in the United Kingdom: Characterization and comparison with a matched Italian cohort, 2019

First reported case in Canada of anaphylaxis to lupine in a child with peanut allergy, 2018

Immunoreactivity changes during lupin seed storage proteins digestion, 2017

Lupin allergy and lupin sensitization among patients with suspected food allergy, 2009

Proteomic analysis of lupin seed proteins to identify conglutin Beta as an allergen, Lup an 1, 2008

Short communication: Lupin allergy in peanut‐allergic children and teenagers, 2008

Lupin allergy in a child, 1999

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