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Key Allergens

There are 4 allergens found in oranges.

Cit s 1 is a germin like protein (GLP). These proteins have a role in guarding against stress and pathogens in the plant.

Cit s 2 is a profilin protein. Allergenic profilins are found exclusively in flowering plants and are minor pollen allergens.

Cit s 3 is a lipid transfer protein (LTP). These proteins are resistant to heat and are found in many types of plants. Patients suffering from a more severe allergy to cooked fruit may be sensitised to this group of proteins.

Cit s 7 is a gibberellin regulated protein. Gibberellins are plant hormones associated with growth and development.

Associated Syndromes

You may be suffering from LTP Syndrome if you have reactions to various fruits, vegetables and nuts and your reactions continue to be severe after you have discarded the peel and have cooked the food.

Allergy to orange is sometimes linked to Celery-Mugwort-Spice Syndrome as the sensitising allergen is a profilin protein called Art v 4, these proteins are also sometimes also called Bet v 2 proteins.

There is also a link between orange and Latex Food Syndrome. The plant involved in latex allergy Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber tree plant, has an allergen called Hev b 8 which is a profilin protein. Those very sensitised to latex may have a contact allergic reaction from other foods or plants containing profilin proteins, there is less evidence of this than sensitisation to other latex linked proteins like hevein and chitinases.

Cross Reactivity

Common foods involved in LTP allergy include kiwi, strawberries, sunflower seeds, walnut, apple, mulberry, banana, pea, apricot, cherry, plum, almond, peach pomegranate, raspberry, tomato, grape, celery, peanut, asparagus, cabbage, broccoli, chestnut, lemon, tangerine, orange, hazelnut, lettuce, lentils, lupin, green bean, pear, mustard, wheat and maize.

Other foods containing profilin allergens are celery, peanut, soyabeans, lychee, walnut, lupin, almonds, mustard, hazelnut, kiwi, pineapple, chilli, melon, strawberry, apple, banana, aubergine (eggplant), peach, pear, tomato, dates, cherry, carrot, barley and wheat. Allergic reactions to some of these foods may be considered a marker of profilin hypersensitivity.

Gibberellin regulated proteins are also found in chilli, cherry, apricots, peach and pomegranate.



Allergen Encyclopedia - Orange

DermNet NZ - Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Essential Oils

Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTP Syndrome)

Do You Have a Citrus Allergy? Learn the Symptoms

What are the symptoms of citrus allergy?

Articles and Journals

Allergy to Gibberellin-Regulated Proteins (Peamaclein) in Children, 2021

Gibberellin-regulated protein allergy: Clinical features and cross-reactivity, 2020

Lipid Transfer Protein allergy in the United Kingdom: Characterization and comparison with a matched Italian cohort, 2019

Identification of gibberellin‐regulated protein as a new allergen in orange allergy, 2018

Profilins: mimickers of allergy or relevant allergens?, 2011

Profilin sensitization detected in the office by skin prick test: a study of prevalence and clinical relevance of profilin as a plant food allergen, 2008

Germin‐like protein Cit s 1 and profilin Cit s 2 are major allergens in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruits, 2006

Isolation, cloning and allergenic reactivity of natural profilin Cit s 2, a major orange allergen, 2005

Lipid transfer proteins and allergy to oranges, 2005

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