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Key Allergens

Wheat contains a whopping 28 allergens which have been identified as causing IgE allergic reactions.

Ten of these allergens are airway allergens, linked to pollen from wheat.

Many of the 18 food allergens are in the prolamin family of proteins, these are cereal storage proteins which are collectively called gluten.

Tri a 12 is a profilin protein, this is a panallergen known to cause allergic reactions across multiple foods.

Tri a 14 is a lipid transfer protein, this is a panallergen which can cause allergic reactions even in cooked foods and can cause issues across multiple groups of foods.

Associated Syndromes

An allergy to wheat has been linked to Wheat Dependent Exercise Induced Anaphylaxis (WD-EIA) and Baker's Asthma.

Allergy to wheat is sometimes linked to Celery-Mugwort-Spice Syndrome as the sensitising allergen is a profilin protein called Art v 4, these proteins are also sometimes also called Bet v 2 proteins.

There is also a link between wheat and Latex Food Syndrome. The plant involved in latex allergy Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber tree plant, has an allergen called Hev b 8 which is a profilin protein. Those very sensitised to latex may have a contact allergic reaction from other foods or plants containing profilin proteins, there is less evidence of this than sensitisation to other latex linked proteins like hevein and chitinases.

Coeliac disease is not an allergic condition, but is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten found in wheat to which sensitive individuals may react.

Cross Reactivity

Wheat contains lipid transfer proteins, so you may suffer cross reactivity from consuming other cereals containing LTPs, like durum wheat and maize.

Common foods involved in LTP allergy include kiwi, strawberries, sunflower seeds, walnut, apple, mulberry, banana, pea, apricot, cherry, plum, almond, peach pomegranate, raspberry, tomato, grape, celery, peanut, asparagus, cabbage, broccoli, chestnut, lemon, tangerine, orange, hazelnut, lettuce, lentils, lupin, green bean, pear and mustard

Other foods containing profilin allergens are celery, peanut, soyabeans, lychee, walnut, lupin, almonds, mustard, hazelnut, kiwi, pineapple, chilli, melon, orange, strawberry, apple, banana, aubergine (eggplant), peach, pear, tomato, dates, cherry, carrot and barley. Allergic reactions to some of these foods may be considered a marker of profilin hypersensitivity.

Wheat is in the Poales order of foods, so there may be some cross reactivity with other foods in the group such as barley, rye and maize.



Science Direct - Wheat Allergy

Allergen Encyclopedia - Wheat

ACAAI - Wheat Allergy

FARE - Wheat Allergy

Anaphylaxis Campaign - Exercise Induced Anaphylaxis

Articles and Journals

Omega-5 and Gamma Gliadin are the Major Allergens in Adult-Onset IgE-Mediated Wheat Allergy: Results from Thai Cohort with Oral Food Challenge, 2021

Non-celiac wheat sensitivity: rationality and irrationality of a gluten-free diet in individuals affected with non-celiac disease: a review, 2021

Characterization of children with IgE-mediated wheat allergy and risk factors that predict wheat anaphylaxis, 2020

Wheat - Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Occurred With a Delayed Onset of 10 to 24 hours After Wheat Ingestion: A Case Repor, 2014

Characterization of causative allergens for wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat proteins in facial soap, 2013

Multiple wheat flour allergens and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants bind IgE in baker's asthma, 2011

Wheat and maize thioredoxins: a novel cross-reactive cereal allergen family related to baker's asthma, 2006

Humoral and cellular responses to gliadin in wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, 2003

The diversity of allergens involved in bakers' asthma, 1984

Let me know if you found any of these interesting or useful. If you spot an article or research that you think is interesting you can message me or tag me on Facebook or Twitter - links at the bottom of the page.

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