Gluten is the name given to a group of proteins (also known as prolamins). The names of the food proteins involved in coeliac disease are gliadin, hordein, secalin, zein, kafirin and avenin. Reactions to this group of proteins are not considered to be a true IgE allergic reaction.
Coeliac disease (European spelling, known as Celiac in North America) is an autoimmune disorder where the body reacts to gluten in foods consumed and damages the gut, causing poor absorption of foods.
Despite not being an allergy, gluten is usually included in food allergy lists as it needs to be labelled on food in Europe as there are large number of sufferers worldwide.
Seitan is a vegan food made from wheat flour, which is a better source of protein than tofu (which is made from soya
). If you are allergic to wheat or are intolerant to gluten you will need to avoid foods which contain seitan.
Coeliac disease is not an allergic condition, but is triggered by gluten found in cereals and grains.
Gluten is also linked to Non-coeliac Gluten Intolerance, you can read more about this on the Food Intolerance
Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare skin disease that has been linked to coeliac disease. The gliadin proteins found in wheat cause the immune system to overreact and target the skin.
Foods containing gluten are wheat, barley, rye, durum wheat and oats.
This food list is not exhaustive, the most up to date information is available on the Cross Reactivity Tool.
Allergy UK - Downloads
NHS - Coeliac
Celiac Disease Foundation (US)
Canadian Celiac Association
Dermnet NZ - Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Allergen Encyclopedia - Wheat (gliadin)
Articles and Journals
Updates in the diagnosis and management of coeliac disease, 2023
Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Different Gluten Doses and Risk of Coeliac Disease Relapse, 2023
Celiac disease frequency is increased in IgE-mediated food allergy and could affect allergy severity and resolution, 2022
The Stance4Health Project: Evaluating a Smart Personalised Nutrition Service for Gut Microbiota Modulation in Normal- and Overweight Adults and Children with Obesity, Gluten-Related Disorders or Allergy/Intolerance to Cow’s Milk, 2022
The Gluten-Free Diet for Celiac Disease and Beyond, 2021
Nummular Eczema Successfully Treated with a Glutenfree Diet: First Description, 2021
Editorial: the rising tide of coeliac disease autoimmunity, 2021
Pathogenesis of Celiac Disease and Other Gluten Related Disorders in Wheat and Strategies for Mitigating Them, 2020
Coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity, 2011
Increasing prevalence of coeliac disease over time, 2007
Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease, 2006
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