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Key Allergens

Pine nuts (also called pignolia) are the small, edible seeds from certain species of the Pinaceae family which are pine trees.

The stone pine has an identified 2S seed storage proteins. These are panallergens commonly associated with tree nuts, peanuts, legumes and seeds.

Korean pine nuts are similar in appearance, but are from a different species of pine tree. They contain a 7S seed storage proteins. These are also associated with nuts, legumes and seed allergies.

Opinion is split about whether pine nuts are tree nuts, but they are technically seeds and cross reactivity between tree nuts and pine nuts are uncommon. Pine nuts are OK for some nut allergy sufferers.

Food Intolerances

Food is low in FODMAP Food is low in lectins Food is high in salicylates

Pine Nuts are a low FODMAP food. FODMAP stands for Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. Foods high in FODMAPs can cause symptoms of food intolerance, affecting the gastro intestinal system and this can be mistaken for a true IgE food allergy.

Pine Nuts are a food high in salicylates. Salicylates have the potential to cause worsening of asthma, swelling, itching and hives as well as food intolerance symptoms in people who are sensitive to salicylates.

Pine Nuts are low in lectins>, these are another cause of food intolerance, because of their taste and texture they are a good replacement for peope who suffer from food intolerance to lectins.

You can read more about Food Intolerances on the dedicated Food Intolerance Page.

Associated Syndromes

Pine nut allergy is not associated with any allergic syndromes.

Cross Reactivity

Other foods which contain 2S seed storage proteins include brazil nut, buckwheat, rapeseed (canola), cashew nut, castor beans, chickpeas (garbanzo), cocoa, edamame (soya), fenugreek, flaxseed, hazelnut, kiwi, lemon, mustard, peanut, pecan, pistachio poppy seed, pumpkin, quinoa, sesame seeds, sichuan pepper, sunflower seeds, swede, tangerine, turnip and walnuts.

There is a lot of crossover between 2S and 7S seed storage proteins, foods which contain 7S proteins not named above include lupin, chia seeds, coconut, lentils, macadamia nuts, mung beans, palm oil and peas.

Note these food lists are not exhaustive, the most up to date information is on the Cross Reactivity Tool.



Allergen Encyclopedia - Pine Nut

Science Direct - Pine Nuts

Anaphylaxis Campaign - Pine Nuts

AAAAI - Pine Nut Allergy

Food Allergy Canada - Tree Nuts

Allergy Insight - Pine Nut Allergy

Healthline - FODMAP Foods

ATP Science - Salicylate Foods

Articles and Journals

Prevalence of tree nut allergy in Europe: A systematic review and meta-analysis, 2024

A Case Report of Acute Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Walnut, 2023

Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) nuts induced anaphylaxis: a case series, 2023

Epitope mapping of the major allergen 2S albumin from pine nut, 2021

Nut Allergy: Clinical and Allergological Features in Italian Children, 2021

Pine nut allergy in Korean children: Clinical characteristics and diagnostic values of specific IgE against pine nuts, 2018

Current perspectives on tree nut allergy: a review, 2018

Pin p 1 is a major allergen in pine nut and the first food allergen described in the plant group of gymnosperms, 2016

Identification, characterization, and initial epitope mapping of pine nut allergen Pin k 2, 2016

Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review, 2015

Pine nut allergy: Clinical features and major allergens characterization, 2012

Allergy to pine nuts in children, 1998

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