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Enolase Proteins

This is a simplified description of enolase proteins – there are more resources available at the bottom of the page for further reading for those who are interested in knowing more.

What are enolase proteins?

Many animal tissues contain enolase proteins. They are proteins which are involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates in the body.

Enolase proteins are considered to be minor panallergens. They are less commonly associated with allergy than Lipid Transfer Proteins and seed storage proteins, but have become more studied in recent years due to the possibility of cross reactivity between different species of fish and occasionally other meat sources.

These proteins vary from species to species in how the allergenicity is changed due to heat, but most studies show many are heat resistant and will still elicit an allergic reaction after cooking or processing.

Which pollens contain enolase proteins?

Enolase proteins are found as an allergen in ragweed, plane trees, privet bushes, various grasses and wormwood. Enolase is a contact allergen in rubber tree plants and cockroach.

Which foods contain enolase proteins?

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognises 6 enolase allergens which have been identified as causing allergic reactions after consumption of food.

Various species of fish contain beta enolase proteins. The WHO allergen database specifically mentions cod, carp, catfish, salmon and tuna, but they have been found in multiple species of fish.

Enolases have also been found in chicken, snake meat, pencillin, yeast and various other moulds and fungi.

What symptoms do they cause?

Allergy to foods containing enolase proteins have a wide range of symptoms and severity including urticaria (hives or welts), angioedema (swelling under the skin), nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting or breathlessness and anaphylactic shock.

What is the importance of knowing whether a reaction is to enolase or other allergens?

Multiple allergies are becoming more common and this often leads people to impose a strict restrictive diet on themselves. This can lead to a poor diet lacking in essential nutrients and frustration over a lack of eating options. Knowing which foods are the most likely to be causing your reactions can bring more options back into your diet.

This is why food diaries continue to be an important tool in diagnosis of your allergies – noting the times reactions took place and what medications were taken are a necessary starting point for a proper diagnosis.

There is more information on food diaries HERE.


Science Direct - Enolase

Articles and Journals

Genome assembly and annotation of Periplaneta americana reveal a comprehensive cockroach allergen profile, 2023 Physicochemical and immunological characterization of Amb a 12, a novel ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen allergen, 2023

Going over Fungal Allergy: Alternaria alternata and Its Allergens, 2023

Physicochemical and immunological characterization of Amb a 12, a novel ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen allergen, 2023

Poultry Meat allergy: a Review of Allergens and Clinical Phenotypes, 2022

Comparative proteomics and in silico allergenicity of fresh and powdered skipjack tuna and Nile tilapia, 2022

Fish Allergy: Fishing for Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options, 2022

Complex IgE sensitization patterns in ragweed allergic patients: Implications for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy, 2022

Aldolase: A new Crustacea allergen, 2018

Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat – a new clinical syndrome, 2016

Correlation of clinical monosensitivity to cod with specific IgE to enolase and aldolase, 2014

Identification of enolases and aldolases as important fish allergens in cod, salmon and tuna: component resolved diagnosis using parvalbumin and the new allergens, 2013

Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergen, 2014

Let me know if you found any of these interesting or useful. If you spot an article or research that you think is interesting you can message me or tag me on Facebook or Twitter - links at the bottom of the page.

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