Rye is a grain in the Poaceae
family of plants, other plants in this family include barley, corn, durum wheat, wheat, oats and rice.
There are 3 allergens associated with an allergy to rye. Two are airway allergens and one is a food allergy called Sec c 20 which a gamma secalin protein.
Secalin proteins are prolamins, storage proteins found in cereal crops which have the ability to trigger coeliac disease symptoms. Collectively these proteins are known as gluten
Sec c 5 is a grass pollen
allergen and Sec c 38 is dimeric alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, both are pollen allergens.
Rye is a high FODMAP food. FODMAP stands for F
olyols. Foods high in FODMAPs can cause symptoms of food intolerance, affecting the gastro intestinal system and this can be mistaken for a true IgE food allergy.
You can read more about Food Intolerances
on the dedicated Food Intolerance Page.
The protein associated with rye allergy is linked to Exercise Induced Anaphylaxis
, more specifically wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis.
Coeliac disease is not an allergic condition, but is triggered by gluten found in rye to which sensitive individuals may react.
If you react to wheat, especially with anaphylaxis symptoms after exercising then you may want to also avoid consumption of rye.
Rye is in the Poales
order of plants, so there may be some cross reactivity with other foods in the group such as wheat, barley and maize.
Wheat also contains dimeric alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, so there may be some cross reactivity if you have airway reactions to rye.
None of these food lists are completely exhaustive, the most up to date food lists are on the Cross Reactivity Tool.
Science Direct - Secalin
Allergen Encyclopedia - Rye
DermNet NZ - Aeroallergens
Allergy information for: Rye (Secale cereale)
Healthline - FODMAP Foods
Articles and Journals
Vegan diet—alternative protein sources as potential allergy risk, 2023
Cross-reactivity of each fraction among cereals in children with wheat allergy, 2022
IgE-Dependent Allergy in Patients with Celiac Disease: A Systematic Review, 2023
The clinical cross-reactivity and immunological cross-antigenicity of wheat and barley, 2022
Celiac Disease and Sensitization to Wheat, Rye, and Barley: Should We Be Concerned? 2021
Comprehensive proteome analysis of bread deciphering the allergenic potential of bread wheat, spelt and rye, 2021
Rye flour allergens: an emerging role in baker's asthma, 2008
Rye gamma-70 and gamma-35 secalins and barley gamma-3 hordein cross-react with omega-5 gliadin, a major allergen in wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, 2001
Life-threatening, recurrent anaphylaxis caused by allergy to gliadin and exercise, 1997
Immunologic cross-reactivity among cereal grains and grasses in children with food hypersensitivity, 1995
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