Hemp is a weed of the family Cannabinaceae
that produces flowers, leaves and seeds. Hemp seeds are added to cereals, granola and pressed to produce oil.
There are 4 airway allergens associated with hemp allergy.
Can s 2 is a profilin protein
, this is a panallergen causing allergies in multiple plants.
Can s 3 is a Lipid Transfer Protein
(LTP). This is another common panallergen which has been known to cause serious allergic reactions.
Can s 5 is a pathogenesis related protein, these proteins are also known as Bet v 1 proteins
as they affect people already sensitised to birch tree pollen. This allergen gives oral allergy type symptoms like itching lips and an irritated throat.
Hemp is also strongly linked to thaumatin-like protein
Recent studies have linked hemp seeds to 7S seed storage proteins
. These are proteins which are usually found in nuts and seeds. Hemp seeds can be used in cannabis edibles, so for those with severe allergies to nuts and seeds using cannabis in this way can lead to severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis.
Cannabis tea is another method becoming increasingly popular, ingestion in this way is more likely to elicit allergic reactions than inhalation.
Other plants containing profilin inhalant allergens are ragweed, wormwood, birch, sunflower, olive, plantain, poplar and oak. Profilins are also found as food allergens in kiwi, celery, peanut, chilli, watermelon, orange, hazelnut, melon, carrot, strawberry, soya, walnut, lychee, lupin, apple, cherry, almond, peach, pear, mustard, tomato and aubergine.
Other plants containing inhalant LTP allergens are wormwood, mugwort and plane. Foods containing LTP include kiwi, strawberry, sunflower, walnut, apple, mulberry, pea, apricot, cabbage, peanut, chestnut, celery, lemon tangerine, orange, lettuce, lentil, lupin, mustard, cherry, plum, almond, peach, pomegranate, raspberry, tomato and grape.
Other Bet v 1 pollens are alder, birch, chestnut, hazel, beech, olive and oak.
Other foods which contain 7S seed storage proteins include lupin, buckwheat, coconut, soya beans, hazelnuts, fenugreek, macadamia, pecans, peanuts and pistachio nuts.
Please note that these allergen lists are not exhaustive, the most up to date information is on the Cross Reactivity Tool.
Side Effects of Hemp Protein
Can you be allergic to marijuana?
Allergic Reaction to Hemp: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Articles and Journals
Proteomics-based approach for detailing allergenic profile of cannabis chemotypes, 2023
A review of cannabis allergy in the early days of legalization, 2023
Hemp seed: An allergen source with potential cross-reactivity to hazelnut, 2023
Physicochemical and Functional Properties of 2S, 7S, and 11S Enriched Hemp Seed Protein Fractions, 2022
Should cannabis be a higher priority for allergists? 2022
Production, digestibility and allergenicity of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolates, 2019
Exploring the Diagnosis and Profile of Cannabis Allergy, 2019
Cannabis allergy: what the clinician needs to know, 2019
Case Series of 5 Patients with Anaphylaxis to Hemp Seed Ingestion, 2016
Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog, 2016
Anaphylaxis to ingestion of hempseed (Cannabis sativa), 2003
Cannabis (hemp) positive skin tests and respiratory symptoms, 2000
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